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History of Powerlifting, Weightlifting and Strength Training Part 65

Talking Diversity in Lifting Ability Part 2

Not everyone believes that watching a lifting contest is “a good thing.” I directed my first powerlifting meet in the late-1970’s and it was “de facto direction” if it was anything. My friends and training partners, highly thought of powerlifters on the verge of national recognition, decided to host a powerlifting meet which would be well attended due to the popularity of the sport in the St. Louis area. Because everyone planned to lift in the contest, their focus naturally remained on their training and the highlight of the competition for me, was being attired in a non-supportive wrestling singlet, buried beneath the announcing and scorer’s table, hooking up loud speakers, when my name was called for my first squat. Obviously there would be no time to change into the new-fangled, newly introduced supportive lifting suits, the ones that resembled skin tight burlap bags, and no time to actually warm up. I passed on my first attempt so that I could take rapid, non-stop warm-ups with 135 and 225, and ran out for my first attempt of the competition. There was no strong prediction that I would have placed any higher than fourth in a very good field of six or seven as I recall the competition, but it was a poor way to begin one’s competitive day and a lesson that one should either direct a contest or lift in a contest but probably not try to do both. When Mike Wittmer and I were asked to take over the Missouri State Olympic Weightlifting Championships, it was the first opportunity I had to design a meet tee shirt, not yet a commonly seen item. It turned out to be a popular and attractive model that displayed the state outline and all of the appropriate verbiage to demonstrate to onlookers that “I lifted weights.” Because St. Louis was in fact a rabid lifting area, there were meets within driving distance almost weekly between powerlifting and Olympic lifting and our group competed in them, assisted as spotters and loaders, or observed on a regular basis. When Kathy and I owned the Iron Island Gym, we held five meets annually; the New York State Powerlifting Championships, a deadlift only championship, two bench press contests, and what we termed a limited, “invitational meet” that insured that all of our gym lifters had the opportunity to go head-to-head against others of similar ability from out of state. For four or five of our seven years of gym ownership, we volunteered to host the New York Empire State Olympic Weightlifting Qualifying Contest for the area lifters. Stan Bailey, a very highly ranked lifter from the 1960’s, was the coach of the Empire State Team and was meet director but we would supply spotters, loaders, the warm-up and competition facility, and I would spend the day announcing, loading, and doing whatever it took to provide them with a successful venue.

Dr-Richard-Seibert-

Dr. Richard Seibert was on one of our U.S. Teenage World teams when he was my patient. Rich went on to Chiropractic college and to successful careers as a Chiropractor with a thriving Long Island practice and as an Olympic weightlifter who still competes into his 50’s. Rich brought a young, talented lifter to my office for treatment who became one of our country’s finest Olympic weightlifters. He was inspired to return to his home in Illinois and later pursue a career as a Chiropractor after attending Logan College Of Chiropractic in St. Louis. That lifter was the great Curt White.

Olympic-weightlifter-Curt-White

Former Olympic weightlifter Curt White, one of the best we had for many years, now a successful Chiropractor in Mooresville, NC

One of the truisms I learned, was that for a lifting fan, there are few things as exciting or wonderful as watching “good” Olympic weightlifting and few things as horrible from a spectator’s perspective, as watching poor lifting. There is no doubt that Olympic lifters and fans will immediately state that “nothing is worse than watching powerlifting” with emphasis on the word “boring!” It obviously depends upon one’s perspective, lifting background, and interest but there is no doubt in my mind that the personalities attracted to each segment of the iron game sports are very different. These differences are often on display during the actual lifting competitions. As usual, allow me to make reference to “the old days” of the 1950’s and ‘60’s, or at least what I experienced. Once powerlifting was established as an official sport, many of the powerlifters were Olympic lifters. Many of the Olympic lifters were powerlifters. “Everyone” who trained did so to become bigger and stronger, not “cut,” “ripped,” or “to have abs” so that they were deemed to be “hotter” than some other guy. I believe any conversation that made reference to a male that was “hot” would have made most of the gym attendees of that era cringe. Our commercial gym ownership that spanned from our first construction day of November 1, 1991, through our official opening on February 3, 1992 to our sale date of October 26, 1998 forced us to understand that the driving force behind most gym memberships was in fact, a desire for both men and women to be seen as “hot” by the same and opposite sexes. “Getting bigger and stronger” lagged far behind “gotta have abs and pecs” and “I only want to train chest and arms” on the popularity scale. The previous generations of lifters were in it for a very different goal: pack on as much muscle as possible with most men cognizant that they wanted to be lean enough to at least demonstrate through their appearance that they had in fact trained to become stronger and weren’t just circus fat men.

Olympic-weightlifter-Charles-Vinci

Bantamweight Olympic weightlifter Charles Vinci, the last American to win a gold medal at the Olympic Games in the sport, obviously knew his way around a barbell curl and chin up bar. Vinci was cited by York Barbell Company owner and Olympic weightlifting team “owner” Bob Hoffman as an example of a lifter who had “too much” muscle. AT 4’11-3/4” Vinci was as packed with functional muscle as he could be but Hoffman would chide him about doing curls and bench presses, noting that “for every ounce of muscle in his biceps, he could have trained to put it into his hips or back to lift more weight.” As multiple time national and world champion, its debatable if Vinci could have lifted much better than he did.

Olympic-weightlifter-Charles-Vinci_02

The Cleveland, Ohio ironworker was one of the “old school” examples of men who did a variety of lifting and training movements yet were proficient at the Iron Game specialty they placed their focus on. As a deeply religious man Vinci often attributed his success to “the will of God,” but all of his training partners noted his willingness to train day or night, and a contagious level of enthusiasm and dedication. Vinci was a true champion!

Even hard core bodybuilders were focused upon packing on as much muscle and as being as muscular as possible, in every area of their body, not targeting “pecs, biceps, and abs only” which seems to be the obsession of every twenty-something year old male. What was also obvious was the goal of most bodybuilders, even competitive bodybuilders, to be strong or considered as “strong” relative to the average man on the street. Vince Gironda was perhaps the only known physique star and gym owner who flat out stated that bodybuilding was just that, building and displaying the muscular structures of the body and the accompanying strength of those muscular structures were not only very secondary, it need not be a consideration of the serious or competitive bodybuilder. He was ridiculed or seen as a radical by his bodybuilding brethren because for anyone of that era, lifting weights implied being strong, no matter what one’s ultimate goal was.

The technical aspects of Olympic weightlifting made it beyond the consideration of many who lifted weights. Some “just knew” they would not be able to master what appeared to be intricacies involved in the clean and press, snatch, and clean and jerk. To the uninitiated, it just looked difficult. After attempting the lifts, even with excellent instruction, most were convinced it was a task that would never allow them to fulfill their barbell oriented goals. For this reason alone, those attracted to the sport were different than those attracted to the sport of powerlifting. Since I began writing for the popular muscle related press in the late 1960’s, I have noted the technical proficiency needed to be an accomplished powerlifter and the very technical aspects of each individual lift. While my competitive days are long behind me, I am still at heart “a powerlifter” before I am anything else related to a barbell but I would never try to convince myself that the technical aspects of powerlifting and the technique needed to fulfill one’s potential on the platform, compare to that necessary for successful Olympic lifting.

More next month. Be sure to come back December 1st 2013 to read installment #66 of Dr. Ken’s “History of Powerlifting Series”

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History of Powerlifting, Weightlifting and Strength Training Part 64

Talking Diversity in Lifting Ability

Although the emphasis is always on powerlifting in our series of TITAN articles, very much like the features I wrote for more than two consecutive decades for the sorely missed Powerlifting USA Magazine, the related materials often roam far and wide. My two-part “series” on the CrossFit phenomena brought a tremendous amount of response, both positive and negative, though it was not my intention to stir the pot with that specific subject. With a similar lack of intention to raise the hackles of the Olympic Weightlifting community, allow me please to generally praise our weightlifting brethren, yet point out a few things that some may not appreciate. Going back to an ongoing thread that has run through this entire series of articles, in the “old days,” almost everyone who seriously approached the task of becoming muscularly larger and stronger utilized all aspects of the three accepted lifting disciplines. Bodybuilders often did heavy squats, deadlifts, and bench presses, especially in “bulking up” or “getting bigger” phases and squats were actually done with a barbell and not on a Smith Machine. They performed overhead barbell pressing, power cleans, and front squats at various stages of their development too.

Big-Tony-Scrivens

Big Tony Scrivens, a good friend and one of my favorite people has utilized the lifts specific to each iron sports discipline as well as many years dedicated to various athletic events. The result very much illustrates the effect of utilizing a variety of resistance modalities and exercises to develop “a lot of muscle and a lot of strength.”

Powerlifters performed the same power cleans, front squats, and overhead presses to strengthen the muscles used in the three competitive power lifts while often including incline pressing with barbells or dumbbells, specific triceps and lat work that might call for the inclusion of triceps pressdowns and extensions, as well as a variety of lat pulldowns and chins. It wasn’t unusual to increase one’s competitive squat by increasing lower extremity strength levels with leg presses and Hack squats for those whose knees could handle the shearing stress. Olympic lifters did bench pressing for both overall upper body power and to specifically assist the overhead press and jerk, as well as barbell or dumbbell rows and deadlifts for increased strength and development in the upper back. A variety of shrugs were used by all. Thus, anyone who “lifted weights” seriously or competitively had a varied arsenal of exercises, many of which were found to be “acceptable” within the communities of their specific focus of lifting interest or specialty.

Tony-Pandolfo

One of my early training mentors from the neighborhood, Tony Pandolfo. Known as a bodybuilder of tremendous longevity, his training background which dated to the late 1950’s also allowed him to produce very high levels of strength that resulted in Odd Lift contest success. The combination of heavy lifting and specialized bodybuilding movements gave him strength, vitality as noted in this photo taken when he was 60 years of age, and very high levels of strength.”

Of course, like football, where two way players have long been replaced by specialists who often play no more than a down at a time under very specific down and distance circumstances, each of the lifting disciplines has within themselves become ridiculously specialized. I have in past articles, noted that I have met many extremely strong men who could apply their strength to numerous endeavors and often almost any endeavor requiring the output of force. They may have participated as Olympic weightlifters for example, but they could if and when called upon, also lift the engine end of automobiles, carry iron beams up steep stairwells, or spend a day moving more sheetrock than three other men. I have also met hugely muscular competitive bodybuilders, Olympic or powerlifters who were extremely strong in their sporting disciplines who were, out of the gym environment, not much stronger than other athletic males of similar weight and experience who had never lifted weights at all. These men were strong in the specific planes of motion they trained and competed in but did not have anything close to the expected levels of strength doing demanding, daily activities. Certainly in all lifting activities, leverage factors come into play but past that, I have had the experience of dealing with many powerlifters who could squat, bench press, and deadlift a lot of weight, Olympic lifters who could press, snatch, and clean and jerk a lot of weight, bodybuilders who looked as if they could walk through walls, yet none could lift moderately sized “industrial objects” or do so for a sustained period of time over the course of a few hours. This observation provoked me to make the statement in print, as far back as the late 1970’s, that “The strongest man in the world isn’t necessarily competing in the Senior National Powerlifting Championships or Olympic Weightlifting Championships, he could be lifting in his garage in Cleveland.” I talked and wrote of men who enjoyed lifting weights as a recreational activity, might have toiled in a physically demanding job five or six days each week, and who handled the kind of weights that world champions lifted in their training but who also had no competitive aspirations or perhaps lacked the time, finances, and/or inclination to compete as a lifter.

Richard-Doug-Young

Richard “Doug” Young, pictured on the right, was a world champion powerlifter with the muscular development of a huge world class bodybuilder. As a football player at Texas Tech University, he indicated that he could apply his strength in a multitude of ways.

One National and World Champion powerlifter, a man with a dedicated following of his training ideas at the time, was extremely offended at my remarks and noted that anyone “that strong” of course would compete so people like that just did not exist. Well, they certainly are out there and I’ve worked and trained with a number of them but family responsibilities, school, work, and temperament may have all combined to allow them to lift happily in their basements or garages while never setting foot upon a competitive platform and with no interest in the lifting accomplishments of others past a training partner, if they had one. The same known, aforementioned, champion level lifter also assailed my knowledge of physiology by stating that anyone strong enough to compete at a high level in powerlifting for example, “was strong at anything.” Again, both common sense and experience have taught me that there are men, and women who can lift what is “a lot of weight” by any standard, in the specific plane of motion of the squat, bench press, or deadlift or in the snatch or clean and jerk, yet are not very strong for “walking around on the streets.” If I state that this is even more applicable to Olympic lifters than powerlifters, it gives an entire sector of the lifting sports a month to gather their verbal knives and spears waiting for Part 2 of this article!

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History of Powerlifting, Weightlifting and Strength Training Part 63

Logic, Equipment, CrossFit (and that is a trademarked name)! One More Time For “The Other Side”

Of the many responses that were evoked by last month’s article that focused upon the CrossFit phenomenon sweeping the nation if not the world, one of the brief but insightful comments I received was, “NOT SCATHING, NOT DISRESPECTFUL, JUST ONE MAN’S OPINION I DISAGREE WITH.” That of course is fair as everyone, including me, is entitled to an opinion. Titan and I received a lot of comments regarding last month’s article on CrossFit, indicating that even for the powerlifting community, it is a big deal. As everyone who knows me understands, I have been molded, and perhaps scarred, by my upbringing, some of which was done in what I usually refer to as an immigrant Polish household. “I started at the Home For Unwed Mothers in Amityville, New York and then was taken in by the dopey Polacks” is my standard description of life. My grandparents spoke Polish, as expected, having emigrated from Poland, and cooked Polish. In the neighborhood and in others of skewed ethnic origin that I lived in over the decades, the English language as we know it was altered, butchered, and ultimately utilized to present very clear and concise meaning while not coming close to English or Literature class approval. Years ago in one of my articles I noted that respects were paid when “Old Walter was burialized.” A word or term that was rarely attempted in our circle was bona fides and when it was, it was usually one of the wise guys trying to sound “intellettual” as we would put it. Even when the mispronunciation came out as “bone-a-fydz” we all “got it” and knew that someone was vouching for another and the fact that they could be counted upon to get a specific task done, and had “the stuff” to get it done.

GREGORY_Leistner_04


GREGORY_Leistner_03


GREGORY_Leistner_02


GREGORY_Leistner_01

THE PHOTOS FROM OUR LONG AGO 1999 ANNUAL JULY 4TH MASSACRE TRAINING EVENT INDICATES MY LACK OF FORESIGHT AND INTELLIGENCE. I DID NOT SEE THE MARKETING POSSIBILITIES OF STRINGING TOGETHER OUR USUAL TRAINING PROCEDURES AND “FUN STUFF” OF SQUATTING, PRESSING, HAND-OVER-HAND PULLS, AND STONE LOADING AS A TRAINING SYSTEM! MOST OF POLISH ORIGIN, UNLIKE THE AUTHOR, WOULD HAVE DONE BETTER. PHOTOS FEATURE OUR SON GREGORY WHO IS CURRENTLY THE OFFENSIVE COORDINATOR OF THE NFL’S SAN FRANCISCO FORTY NINERS.

One of my long time trainees, training partners, and friends is Mike Senft who has the bona fides in both business and in training for all aspects of strength and health. A former Princeton football player, Mike took his 240 pound physique and utilized it to get what is arguably the best undergraduate education in the nation, completed his MBA work at Columbia, and moved forward to a successful career on the investment banking front. Using our “word for the month” once again, he earned his powerlifting bona fides less as a member of our group than from his time spent training in Chicago with Ernie Frantz in the 1980’s.

Mike-Senft

Mike Senft, # 70 in your program and number one in our hearts,” as the expression goes. Above, Mike leading a sweep against # 95 of Cornell

He’s done it all on the lifting front and it has allowed him to be very successful in maintaining a strong, youthful physique and tremendous energy levels that propel him through 90 hour work weeks. He’s lifted very heavy weights, incorporated a variety of modalities through decades of consistent training, and has continued to train with me and at a Manhattan CrossFit facility as his schedule allows. While, as noted, I received a lot of comment on last month’s Titan article, I specifically requested that Mike provide his own insights and these follow below.

“I have lived with the philosophy and ethos of your guidance for over 30 years now, and have been uniquely benefited by it. And of course I agree completely with all the foundations of fitness expressed.

Crossfit, like so many aspects of life, has gross imperfections. Chief among them are overtraining and risk of injury from inadequate supervision, complex movements, and mistakes made under exhaustion.

That said, I have witnessed its ability to create a “community” for large groups of people which serves to engage and motivate them like no other modality I have ever experienced. And perhaps most importantly, a sage once said, “People just don’t understand how hard one has to work to effect change” (stop me when this sounds familiar…..) [author’s note: the quote is mine!] . Crossfit, with it’s competitive/supportive environment and high intensity approach, incorporating a variety of movements and protocols, provides a uniquely inspirational environment for the trainee who does not have a Dr. Ken & Kathy, and does not have the personal background or capacity to train on their own at a similar level of commitment. Compared with what I have regularly witnessed at the Equinox and other gyms in NY, it is light years ahead and closer to what I believe we all embrace as the correct approach.

I miss 20 rep squats, Hussefeld stone carry, chain drag, warrior press, etc. But I doubt most people would understand what we do with you, yet they work very hard in the Crossfit environment. So I am glad for the “realism” I see from that level of commitment. I am not a big fan of half-assed effort and poseurs…..

As I mentioned after I met Greg Glassman, the founder of Crossfit, he totally gets the foundations of your beliefs and approach.

one trainers, is appalling. You enjoy a unique, idyllic environment in your facilities, and in the rarefied air of the elite training organizations where you have lectured, etc. The great sea of mediocrity I deal with every day is unnerving at best. So, during my “penance” here in NYC, I take small comfort from environments where people actually seem sincere and generally work hard.”

Allow me to add an additional comment from Mike Burgener. For those who have been out of touch from the legitimate world of lifting activity, Mike played football at Notre Dame and we first met in the late 1960’s while we both were visiting California to experience the training environment of the gyms we had read about in the muscle magazines.

Coach-Mike-Burgener-

Before he was “Coach Mike” Mr. Burgener was one of those football players talented enough to play under the leadership of Notre Dame’s great head coach Ara Parseghian

I finished playing football and my education and returned to New York. Mike finished and returned to California where he became a revered Olympic lifting coach and educator. Arguably, he has been the best Olympic weightlifting coach in the United States for decades. He was also one of the early advocates and what I will term “foundational members” of CrossFit activity. Two comments he sent to me can be incorporated with those above from Mike Senft:

I am proud to be part of the crossfit community and the coach that teaches proper form and technique of the Olympic lifts.


Coach b

And another, made after reading Mike Senft’s comments:

Enjoyed mike’s comments and share the same beliefs. We all fight improper technique, poor planning, non recovery….BUT WE CAN, we do, we have…..done it the correct way and the results speak for themselves!

Thanks ken for your leadership!

Mike

The commentary of Mike S. and Mike B. reinforce my opinion of CrossFit and highlight the problems as well as the positives. If Mike Burgener was teaching the Olympic weightlifting movements that are incorporated into most if not all CrossFit programs (I will repeat that I do not claim expertise regarding their system of training), the movements would be done correctly and as safely as possible. My “complaint” was made vis-à-vis the original Nautilus concepts and opening of Nautilus only fitness sites. I made the analogy to early Nautilus based training where a lack of competent, complete, and correct instruction resulted in many injuries and the participation of many who were either not ready for the type of intense training Nautilus offered, or who were not properly “fitted” to the equipment. I am in support of anything that allows individuals to enhance their levels of strength, health, and fitness. Nautilus based and Nautilus only training did that for those whose medical, orthopedic, and training history insured that they were ready for it. For those who were not, the “one size fits all” training routine presented significant health and orthopedic challenges. For those not instructed properly, the potential dangers and risk of injury were enhanced. Objective observation and comment from colleagues in the health care professions I believe supports my position. In a further comment from Mike Senft, he summed up my primary concern or criticism of the CrossFit phenomenon, and as a health care professional as well as a physical fitness and strength devotee, it remains the most meaningful:

“I would only note that, while I am perhaps uniquely driven and motivated by average standards, I benefit just as much or more from your coaching, guidance and governance than a less applied trainee. I gain both technical guidance and great perspective that is crucial to my progress. Crossfit suffers from an uneven consideration of workload and individual output and recovery capacity in many of its more intense ‘wods’ (workouts of the day), which, along with lack of critical supervision, can put the trainee at risk both during the session and over time. You have ALWAYS had a ‘sixth sense’ about my condition at the start of any session, and have then guided me to my ‘edge’ for the day, rather than set an arbitrary goal regardless of current conditions.”

I am respectful of Mike Senft’s comments because he has done it all relative to pushing himself to excel physically and intellectually. “Mental toughness” is a daily component of everything Mike does and we have joked that he is so intense that we would not want to witness any “psyching up routine” that might precede romantic activity with his beautiful wife! Re-reading his very passionate yet well considered statements notes what is very positive about CrossFit and again, there are similarities to what became available and the wholesale change in the fitness and strength building industry with the 1970 – 1971 introduction of Nautilus equipment. I will repeat that with the type of instruction and supervision provided by a coach at the level of Mike Burgener, the general criticisms and mine in particular, would not be directed at the CrossFit groundswell.

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History of Powerlifting, Weightlifting and Strength Training – Part 62

Logic, Equipment, CrossFit (and that is a trademarked name)!

From Wikipedia: “CrossFit is a strength and conditioning program designed to help people gain a broad and general fitness. CrossFit programming concentrates on constantly varied functional movements performed at high intensity to achieve overall physical fitness, so people are prepared for any physical challenge. CrossFit is a trademark of CrossFit Inc”

We’ll get back to this shortly.

While I have been aware that I can, and have in the past, used logical thought to solve problems and come to conclusions that seemed reasonable to me and those I was dealing with, I haven’t placed myself in the category of “very smart individual.” I have never considered using the descriptive term “intellectual” in any sentence that had my name in it for very obvious reasons. I would probably qualify as a street-smart Polack with a good education but that’s my limit. However, one would be surprised how far logical thought and a little bit of street smarts or common sense can go. I spent decades writing and editing articles for Mike Lambert at Powerlifting USA Magazine, without a doubt, a sorely missed touchstone for the sport of powerlifting and a publication that will never be duplicated in its influence and effect on our sport. During my tenure there, from 1978 through 2002, I watched Mike carefully wind his way through the most tumultuous time in powerlifting’s relatively short history and not yield to political pressure, threats, money, or anything else that would have made him waver from what he felt was an unbiased and neutral reporting of the sport’s important news and events. While my columns and articles were given wide latitude to state what I wished to say and serve as the constructive criticism he would not bring down on others, the standard approach was to avoid “rants” and offensive tirades that served to detract from any legitimate point we were trying to put before the public. My service to TITAN SUPPORT SYSTEMS mimics what I did for PLUSA which is to bring information and hopefully, a bit of enjoyable reading to those who are interested enough to “tune in” each month. I would like to conduct what I hope will be an enjoyable excursion into the realm of logical thought and common sense this month.

Pat_Susco

Multiple squat record setter Pat Susco squatting: is this “functional,” getting stronger, or “CrossFit?”

Powerlifting is a sport that requires the elevation of a barbell in three specific movements or planes of motion. A competitor or participant can become stronger by focusing their energies upon the three lifts of the squat, bench press, and deadlift, and ensuring that they are progressive over time. If they do this, they will lift heavier weights and total more in contests. Some contend that using exercises other than the three competitive lifts, specifically designed to strengthen the musculature utilized in the lifts, will enhance progress, provide variety when training, and perhaps reduce the probability of injury. The proviso here of course, is that in all movements, the trainee must maintain progression in the resistance and/or repetitions used. Obviously both approaches work as the history of the sport notes lifters of record setting caliber who have used either training philosophy. Some of the actual training programs are a bit more complex and involve more equipment or planning than others but either approach can work if the physiological needs of stimulating growth in strength and/or size and allowing time for recovery are met.

Minnesota-Vikings-Pro-Bowl-center-John-Sullivan

Minnesota Vikings Pro Bowl center John Sullivan: is this “functional,” getting stronger, or “CrossFit?”

If you are a lifter who believes that “more than” the three lifts can and should be done in order to best prepare for competition, a careful analysis of the needs of the body relative to the three lifts would be completed, and any assistance movement(s) chosen would be incorporated into the program to meet a specific need. That assistance or additional exercise would be learned so it was done properly and safely, and it would “fit” the rest of the program so that training was optimized and over training or under training was avoided. All of this is both obvious and logical.

Only because our series of TITAN columns has purposely been heavily slanted towards equipment development and use, allow me to introduce our first request for logic and an equipment comment of the day. It would be assumed that any exercise chosen to enhance one or all of the three competitive power lifts would be chosen because it did in fact provide work that would increase the muscular strength and/or size of the involved muscles. When Nautilus machines were introduced to the public, there was no real “equipment industry,” no “fitness industry,” very few health clubs or gyms open to the public, and an almost total absence of women strength training in public if at all. Much of the Nautilus equipment was effective, some was not. Much of the Nautilus equipment was extremely effective and has yet to be matched by the biomechanics of today’s industry and much of it had application to the sport of powerlifting. The philosophy, one borne of common sense and logic, is that for any sport, one enhances the “raw material” of the body and then applies the improved muscular strength, size, and conditioning components to the specific sport of interest. Combining the improved physical components with skill training that is specific to whatever sport one is pursuing, is the most efficacious and yes, logical way to reach one’s potential.

linebacker-Ken-Cobb

Former CFL linebacker Ken Cobb: is this “functional,” getting stronger, or “CrossFit?”

History of Powerlifting, Weightlifting and Strength Training – Part 62 0
by Ken Leistner | September 11, 2013 | 0 Comments History of Powerlifting, Weightlifting and Strength Training by Dr Ken Leistner
Logic, Equipment, CrossFit (and that is a trademarked name)!

From Wikipedia: “CrossFit is a strength and conditioning program designed to help people gain a broad and general fitness. CrossFit programming concentrates on constantly varied functional movements performed at high intensity to achieve overall physical fitness, so people are prepared for any physical challenge. CrossFit is a trademark of CrossFit Inc”

We’ll get back to this shortly.

While I have been aware that I can, and have in the past, used logical thought to solve problems and come to conclusions that seemed reasonable to me and those I was dealing with, I haven’t placed myself in the category of “very smart individual.” I have never considered using the descriptive term “intellectual” in any sentence that had my name in it for very obvious reasons. I would probably qualify as a street-smart Polack with a good education but that’s my limit. However, one would be surprised how far logical thought and a little bit of street smarts or common sense can go. I spent decades writing and editing articles for Mike Lambert at Powerlifting USA Magazine, without a doubt, a sorely missed touchstone for the sport of powerlifting and a publication that will never be duplicated in its influence and effect on our sport. During my tenure there, from 1978 through 2002, I watched Mike carefully wind his way through the most tumultuous time in powerlifting’s relatively short history and not yield to political pressure, threats, money, or anything else that would have made him waver from what he felt was an unbiased and neutral reporting of the sport’s important news and events. While my columns and articles were given wide latitude to state what I wished to say and serve as the constructive criticism he would not bring down on others, the standard approach was to avoid “rants” and offensive tirades that served to detract from any legitimate point we were trying to put before the public. My service to TITAN SUPPORT SYSTEMS mimics what I did for PLUSA which is to bring information and hopefully, a bit of enjoyable reading to those who are interested enough to “tune in” each month. I would like to conduct what I hope will be an enjoyable excursion into the realm of logical thought and common sense this month.
Multiple squat record setter Pat Susco squatting: is this “functional,” getting stronger, or “CrossFit?”

Multiple squat record setter Pat Susco squatting: is this “functional,” getting stronger, or “CrossFit?”

Powerlifting is a sport that requires the elevation of a barbell in three specific movements or planes of motion. A competitor or participant can become stronger by focusing their energies upon the three lifts of the squat, bench press, and deadlift, and ensuring that they are progressive over time. If they do this, they will lift heavier weights and total more in contests. Some contend that using exercises other than the three competitive lifts, specifically designed to strengthen the musculature utilized in the lifts, will enhance progress, provide variety when training, and perhaps reduce the probability of injury. The proviso here of course, is that in all movements, the trainee must maintain progression in the resistance and/or repetitions used. Obviously both approaches work as the history of the sport notes lifters of record setting caliber who have used either training philosophy. Some of the actual training programs are a bit more complex and involve more equipment or planning than others but either approach can work if the physiological needs of stimulating growth in strength and/or size and allowing time for recovery are met.
Minnesota Vikings Pro Bowl center John Sullivan: is this “functional,” getting stronger, or “CrossFit?”

Minnesota Vikings Pro Bowl center John Sullivan: is this “functional,” getting stronger, or “CrossFit?”

If you are a lifter who believes that “more than” the three lifts can and should be done in order to best prepare for competition, a careful analysis of the needs of the body relative to the three lifts would be completed, and any assistance movement(s) chosen would be incorporated into the program to meet a specific need. That assistance or additional exercise would be learned so it was done properly and safely, and it would “fit” the rest of the program so that training was optimized and over training or under training was avoided. All of this is both obvious and logical.

Only because our series of TITAN columns has purposely been heavily slanted towards equipment development and use, allow me to introduce our first request for logic and an equipment comment of the day. It would be assumed that any exercise chosen to enhance one or all of the three competitive power lifts would be chosen because it did in fact provide work that would increase the muscular strength and/or size of the involved muscles. When Nautilus machines were introduced to the public, there was no real “equipment industry,” no “fitness industry,” very few health clubs or gyms open to the public, and an almost total absence of women strength training in public if at all. Much of the Nautilus equipment was effective, some was not. Much of the Nautilus equipment was extremely effective and has yet to be matched by the biomechanics of today’s industry and much of it had application to the sport of powerlifting. The philosophy, one borne of common sense and logic, is that for any sport, one enhances the “raw material” of the body and then applies the improved muscular strength, size, and conditioning components to the specific sport of interest. Combining the improved physical components with skill training that is specific to whatever sport one is pursuing, is the most efficacious and yes, logical way to reach one’s potential.
Former CFL linebacker Ken Cobb: is this “functional,” getting stronger, or “CrossFit?”

Former CFL linebacker Ken Cobb: is this “functional,” getting stronger, or “CrossFit?”

The “problem” that lifters had with Nautilus equipment came from the misguided belief that any modality other than a barbell, dumbbell, or long established “lifting machine” like a leg press or pulldown apparatus, would not transfer to the three competitive lifts. Of course if the old fashioned inverted leg press would be considered an acceptable assistance movement, despite the very deleterious effects it had upon one’s blood pressure and lumbar spine components, then a better designed leg press should have been at least as acceptable. Of course it wasn’t because Nautilus didn’t look like anything that had preceded it, and the short sighted lifting media neither understood the underlying concepts of the equipment nor its application. That said, one of the primary problems was a lack of adequate instruction and at times, any real instruction. In an attempt to cash in on the new fitness and training popularity that became a national trend between the mid-1970’s and early 1980’s, many “business types” opened up establishments with no credentials, no background in the lifting sports, and no understanding of the equipment. Many trainees suffered injuries because everyone used the same exact training program; many trainees were not properly fitted to each machine; many trainees were given a standard weight increase protocol with no regard to their actual rate of progress; many trainees were not given an understanding of the exercises they were doing nor proper instructions.

NFL-linebacker-Rocky-Boiman

Former eight year NFL linebacker Rocky Boiman, member of the Super Bowl winning Colts: is this “functional,” getting stronger, or “CrossFit?”

Does it make sense that every individual’s program should be tailored to their exact needs and abilities? Should a competitive lifter at 123 pounds make the same progressive jumps as a 220 pound competitive lifter? Should one expect that the leverage factors of a 5’2” lifter would be different than one 6’1” in height? Should any consideration be given to a history of previous injury? Obviously, if any lifter expects to make the greatest amount of injury free progress, every one of these factors must be taken into consideration. Nautilus, unfortunately, was not introduced to the lifting public or the powerlifting public in this necessary manner. The statement that any modality that can make one stronger, and then allow the increase in muscular strength to be applied to the three lifts concludes the logical part of today’s “lesson” as it relates to powerlifting. Let’s jump ahead to the present and apply the same rules of logic and in fact, the same aforementioned logical statements. In our training facilities, from our office that focused upon injury treatment and rehabilitation as well as the preparation of athletes for their competitive seasons, to the highly successful Iron Island Gym that competed well on the lifting circuit in the years Kathy and I owned it, we utilized a variety of training modalities. Any particular day’s training program, dependent upon the needs of that athlete, might include barbells, dumbbells, machines, tires, logs, stones, chin and dip bars, and/or maritime chains that were dragged in our driveway or behind the gym. My articles that date as far back as the early to mid-1980’s in Muscular Development Magazine and other publications explained our penchant for car pushing, beam carrying, log pressing (with wooden logs I had made), and similar exercises that at the time, were considered to be “off beat” or “way beyond the norm” in strength training.

Now comes the brief “rant” or semi-rant portion of this column. There seems to have grown a well marketed strategy to incorporate the same variety of exercise movements long used by our athletes and among strongman contest competitors for decades. It is called CrossFit and any individual with a passing interest in strength training knows what it is, has witnessed it, and perhaps has fallen under its spell. I am reminded of a comment made by the uncle of a close friend, an older gentleman who was a chiropractor long before I returned to school to become licensed in the same profession. In the mid-1970’s upon hearing of my employment with Nautilus Sports/Medical Industries he stated, “I’m not even sure what all of this Nautilus stuff is but it’s been the best thing for my business.” Recently, an orthopedic surgeon said the same thing to me about the CrossFit phenomenon. I don’t claim any in-depth understanding of “CrossFit” but rather view it as a construct of various exercises, done with minimal rest between sets, of very standard things done by those with a history of strength training to their credit. However, my criticism, and the rationale behind the comments of the aforementioned orthopedist, stem from the same problems that Nautilus focused training had when introduced to the public. Repeating what I wrote earlier in this article:

One of the primary problems was a lack of adequate instruction and at times, any real instruction.

Many “business types” opened up establishments with no credentials, no background in the lifting sports, and no understanding of the equipment.

Many trainees suffered injuries because everyone used the same exact training program.

Many trainees were not properly fitted to each machine (or for CrossFit, modality).

Many trainees were given a standard weight increase protocol with no regard to their actual rate of progress.

Many trainees were not given an understanding of the exercises they were doing nor proper instructions.

Repeating further: Does it make sense that every individual’s program should be tailored to their exact needs and abilities? Should a trainee (or competitive lifter) at 123 pounds make the same progressive jumps as a 220 pound trainee (or competitive lifter)? Should one expect that the leverage factors of a 5’2” trainee would be different than one 6’1” in height? Should any consideration be given to a history of previous injury? Obviously, if any trainee or lifter expects to make the greatest amount of injury free progress, every one of these factors must be taken into consideration.

Thus, while there is nothing inherently “wrong” with a training program that has one do the Olympic lifts, it certainly is if there is a paucity of instruction. There is nothing wrong with doing “Strongman Lite” movements with small tires and stones but it certainly is with a paucity of instruction or the lack of consideration of the body leverages of each individual trainee. There is nothing magical about CrossFit or any other training program or approach. “Hard exercise” with minimal rest between sets will provide many benefits but only if there is an attempt to tailor the program to the individual’s needs and specific abilities. There is nothing deleterious about utilizing machines or different modalities to specifically enhance the three competitive powerlifts unless proper instruction and forethought are given to the inclusion of each movement. All and any of this is logical.